What is kidney failure?

  • When kidneys stop working or when the level of working is less than 15%
  • The result is a build-up of fluids and chemical wastes in the body
  • This condition is life-threatening unless treated by dialysis or kidney transplantation

What is uremia?

  • When waste products build up in the blood

Possible symptoms:

  • Swelling (edema)
  • Shortness of breath
  • High blood pressure
  • Puffiness around the eyes
  • Decreased sexual interest
  • Decrease or increase in frequency of urination
  • Bruising/bleeding easily
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Headache
  • Drowsiness or confusion
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Itching
  • Trouble sleeping

How do you treat patients with kidney failure?

  • Diet and fluid management
  • Medications
  • Kidney dialysis
  • Haemodialysis
  • Peritoneal Dialysis
  • Kidney transplantation

Selecting a treatment:

  • You need to take an active role in your own care!
  • Learn the facts
  • Consider your medical condition and lifestyle
  • Talk over your options with your health care team and your family
  • Treatments may change as your needs change

What is Haemodialysis?

  • The word “haemo” refers to blood. Haemodialysis is a process which balances blood chemistry (electrolytes) and filters wastes and fluids from the blood.
  • The blood travels outside the body through tubing and passes through a filter on a dialysis machine
  • The filter cleans the blood
  • The clean blood is returned to your body
  • This therapy is typically performed at a self care dialysis center

What is Haemodialysis?

The word “haemo" refers to blood. Haemodialysis is a process which balances blood chemistry (electrolytes) and filters wastes and fluids from the blood The blood travels outside the body through tubing and passes through a filter on a dialysis machine. The filter cleans the blood. The clean blood is returned to your body I This therapy is typically performed at a self care dialysis center.

What happens during Haemodialysis?

  • The dialysis machine pumps the blood through the filter called a dialyser.
  • Two needles are inserted into your arm for each treatment
  • One withdraws the blood
  • One returns the filtered

ls there a risk of getting a blood disease from other patients?

  • Haemodialysis staff are carefully trained resulting in a lowered risk to patients
  • Your blood never touches any surface another person's blood has been.
  • Each person has his/her own needles, tubing and filter which are attached to the dialysis machine just for that treatment

How is blood removed and replaced?

  • A" Fistula" is the surgical linking an artery to a vein providing access to blood vessels
  • A" Graft" is tubing surgically placed under the skin, linking an artery to a vein

Potential problems during Haemodialysis

Although problems are rare, it is important to understand what could happen

  • Low blood pressure
  • Nausea
  • Cramping
  • Headaches
  • Whether you experience problems depends greatly on how well you follow diet and fluid guidelines between treatments, your age and your general physical condition

New Development in Haemodialysis

  • Short daily dialysis
  • Not all patients are candidates
  • Not all dialysis centers offer this type of treatment
  • Your physician will prescribe the appropriate therapy to meet your individual needs
  • Nightly Home Haemodialysis
  • Performed nightly while you sleep

What is Peritoneal Dialysis

  • Just like in Haemodialysis, PeritonealDialysis (PD) uses a filter to clean the blood and remoye excess fluids
  • With PD, the blood is cleansed inside the body using one of the body's own membranes, the peritoneum, as the filter
  • PD is performed primarily as a home therapy

When and where can I perform a CAPD exchange?

  • Exchanges are performed when you wake up in the morning, at lunch,near dinner and before going to bed
  • An exchange takes about 30 minutes
  • Exchanges can be performed in any clean at home at work at school or even on holidays.

How does Peritoneal Dialysis work?

  • PD uses your peritoneal membrane -the lining of your abdomen as the filter
  • Solution is placed in the abdomen in contact with the peritoneal membrane for several hours
  • Waste and fluids pass through the filter, then the solution and waste are drained from your abdomen

What is kidney transplantation?

  • A kidney transplant is an operation in which a healthy kidney from another person is placed into your body
  • This new kidney performs the functions of your own non-working kidneys
  • Dialysis will probably be required while awaiting your transplant

To determine a good, healthy match, the following steps are done:

  • Blood tests
  • Blood type
  • Tissue type
  • Cross-matching
  • Medical criteria
  • Age

Immunosuppressive medicines

  • To suppress or stop the body's normal immune response to reject the donor kidney
  • Help you tolerate the new kidney
  • Must be taken daily
  • Major advances in immunosuppressive therapy
  • Cyclosporine is the most common

Major Surgery

  • There is also risk associated with major surgery.
  • These should be discussed thoroughly you transplant coordinator and treatment team.

Side Effects

  • Use of immunosuppressive medication has been associated with many mild to savior side effects.
  • Some are temporary do not last and some are related to dosage.

What is rejection and how is it treated?

  • Rejection means your body is trying to get rid of something that does not belong
  • Rejection is the major problem with kidney transplants:
  • Immune system
  • Rejection stops the transplanted kidney from working
  • Rejection episodes are common in at least U2 of people in the first 3 months
  • Treatment for rejection includes:
  • Medications
  • Following treatment guidelines
  • Treatment of rejection