What is kidney failure?
- When kidneys stop working or when the level of working is less than 15%
- The result is a build-up of fluids and chemical wastes in the body
- This condition is life-threatening unless treated by dialysis or kidney transplantation
What is uremia?
- When waste products build up in the blood
- Swelling (edema)
- Shortness of breath
- High blood pressure
- Puffiness around the eyes
- Decreased sexual interest
- Decrease or increase in frequency of urination
- Bruising/bleeding easily
- Loss of appetite
- Nausea and vomiting
- Drowsiness or confusion
- Trouble concentrating
- Trouble sleeping
How do you treat patients with kidney failure?
- Diet and fluid management
- Kidney dialysis
- Peritoneal Dialysis
- Kidney transplantation
Selecting a treatment:
- You need to take an active role in your own care!
- Learn the facts
- Consider your medical condition and lifestyle
- Talk over your options with your health care team and your family
- Treatments may change as your needs change
What is Haemodialysis?
- The word “haemo” refers to blood. Haemodialysis is a process which balances blood chemistry (electrolytes) and filters wastes and fluids from the blood.
- The blood travels outside the body through tubing and passes through a filter on a dialysis machine
- The filter cleans the blood
- The clean blood is returned to your body
- This therapy is typically performed at a self care dialysis center
What is Haemodialysis?
The word “haemo” refers to blood. Haemodialysis is a process which balances blood chemistry (electrolytes) and ﬁlters wastes and ﬂuids from the blood The blood travels outside the body through tubing and passes through a ﬁlter on a dialysis machine. The ﬁlter cleans the blood. The clean blood is returned to your body I This therapy is typically performed at a self care dialysis center.
What happens during Haemodialysis?
- The dialysis machine pumps the blood through the filter called a dialyser.
- Two needles are inserted into your arm for each treatment
- One withdraws the blood
- One returns the filtered
ls there a risk of getting a blood disease from other patients?
- Haemodialysis staff are carefully trained resulting in a lowered risk to patients
- Your blood never touches any surface another person’s blood has been.
- Each person has his/her own needles, tubing and filter which are attached to the dialysis machine just for that treatment
How is blood removed and replaced?
- A” Fistula” is the surgical linking an artery to a vein providing access to blood vessels
- A” Graft” is tubing surgically placed under the skin, linking an artery to a vein
Potential problems during Haemodialysis
Although problems are rare, it is important to understand what could happen
- Low blood pressure
- Whether you experience problems depends greatly on how well you follow diet and fluid guidelines between treatments, your age and your general physical condition
New Development in Haemodialysis
- Short daily dialysis
- Not all patients are candidates
- Not all dialysis centers offer this type of treatment
- Your physician will prescribe the appropriate therapy to meet your individual needs
- Nightly Home Haemodialysis
- Performed nightly while you sleep
What is Peritoneal Dialysis
- Just like in Haemodialysis, PeritonealDialysis (PD) uses a filter to clean the blood and remoye excess fluids
- With PD, the blood is cleansed inside the body using one of the body’s own membranes, the peritoneum, as the filter
- PD is performed primarily as a home therapy
When and where can I perform a CAPD exchange?
- Exchanges are performed when you wake up in the morning, at lunch,near dinner and before going to bed
- An exchange takes about 30 minutes
- Exchanges can be performed in any clean at home at work at school or even on holidays.
How does Peritoneal Dialysis work?
- PD uses your peritoneal membrane -the lining of your abdomen as the ﬁlter
- Solution is placed in the abdomen in contact with the peritoneal membrane for several hours
- Waste and ﬂuids pass through the ﬁlter, then the solution and waste are drained from your abdomen
What is kidney transplantation?
- A kidney transplant is an operation in which a healthy kidney from another person is placed into your body
- This new kidney performs the functions of your own non-working kidneys
- Dialysis will probably be required while awaiting your transplant
To determine a good, healthy match, the following steps are done:
- Blood tests
- Blood type
- Tissue type
- Medical criteria
- To suppress or stop the body’s normal immune response to reject the donor kidney
- Help you tolerate the new kidney
- Must be taken daily
- Major advances in immunosuppressive therapy
- Cyclosporine is the most common
- There is also risk associated with major surgery.
- These should be discussed thoroughly you transplant coordinator and treatment team.
- Use of immunosuppressive medication has been associated with many mild to savior side effects.
- Some are temporary do not last and some are related to dosage.
What is rejection and how is it treated?
- Rejection means your body is trying to get rid of something that does not belong
- Rejection is the major problem with kidney transplants:
- Immune system
- Rejection stops the transplanted kidney from working
- Rejection episodes are common in at least U2 of people in the first 3 months
- Treatment for rejection includes:
- Following treatment guidelines
- Treatment of rejection